No takers for 1,353 RTE seats this year

Not a single application has been received for as many as 1,353 Right to Education (RTE) seats this time in the state.

The applications for the quota have not been received in 300 schools. According to a list provided by the Department of Public Instruction, 21 schools in Bengaluru (North, South and Rural)  have not received any application. In Kalaburagi, 46 schools received no application and in Bidar, the number was 30.

Out of 2.74 lakh applications that were received by the department, close to 1.3 lakh were rejected for reasons such as providing fake caste certificate and improper documents.
Parents who have applied for seats for their children under the RTE quota have been thronging the office of the commissioner of public instruction, complaining of technical glitches in uploading documents online. One of the major concerns is that of the application being rejected even after entering the right pin code.

Ravi G, a parent who had applied for a seat in a private school in Jakkasandra was unaware of why the application was rejected. However, the officials who verified the documents on Monday found them to be right.

Same is the case with another parent from Gandhinagar who had applied for an RTE seat for his child. His application was rejected despite entering right pin code.

The department of public instruction had tied up with agencies such as the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) to ensure that the process was conducted online without glitches. Requests of parents to effect changes in their addresses after applying for seats were also turned down.

N C Yogananda, general secretary, RTE Students and Parents Association, said that with several such genuine cases coming to light, the department should extend the deadline and consider applications of those who have made corrections.

Source : Deccanherald

Parents protest against delay in RTE quota admission for next academic year

A large number of parents of students from the economically weaker section (EWS) protested outside Mantralaya on Wednesday afternoon. The protest was against the education department for delaying the process of admission under the Right to Education (RTE) Act 25% quota for the academic year 2016-17 in city schools.

Members of the Anudanit Shikshan Bachao Samiti were also part of the protest. The NGO is helping parents from the first learner’s generation to fill the admission form and help them submit the same through the website given by the education department. The parents, in their letter to education minister Vinod Tawde, demanded that the children who were rejected by schools in the second round of RTE admission of 2015-16 held in January be given admission in the forthcoming academic year.

Samiti secretary K Narayan said, “We met the education minister on March 15 and asked him to increase the criteria of income certificate from Rs1 lakh to Rs3 lakh. Also, he assured us that this year’s admission process of RTE will start by March 22. But looking at the delay in the start of the admission process, the parents got annoyed; hence the protest. We want the education department to also help those students who received messages of confirmation of admission last year but the same didn’t materialise.”

Echoing Narayan, Sudhir Paranjpe, convenor of the Samiti, said, “We couldn’t meet the minister so we submitted the demands of parents in a letter. We have demanded that changes be made in the criteria of income certificate of Rs1 lakh asked from EWS parents to avail admission under the quota. In today’s inflationary times, no house can run on Rs1 lakh income annually. The education department has said it will discuss this and take a decision soon.”

Source : dnaindia

Private schools reluctant to admit EWS children under RTE Act

Even after six years of implementation of the right to education (RTE) Act, children from economically weaker section are still struggling to find their seats in schools.

RTE Section 12(1)(c) mandates private unaided schools (except minority and residential schools) to keep 25 percent of the seats (at entry level) reserved for children belonging to economically weaker sections. This was aimed to increase educational opportunities and to create inclusive schooling system.

The provision has the potential to impact the lives of 1.6 crore children across the country. In the last six years, there have been several roadblocks and resistance from private schools in its implementations. The progress in implementing the 25 percent mandate has undoubtedly been slow. According to data from District Information System for Education (DISE), the state fill rate – share of available seats filled by the mandate – has increased from 14.66 percent in 2013-14 to 15.12 percent in 2014-15 (the most recent year for which the DISE data is available).

The report ‘State of the Nation: RTE Section 12 (1) (c)’ highlights the status of implementation of the provision. The report, released in Delhi on Thursday, is a collaborative effort of the RTE resource centre at IIM Ahmedabad, Central Square Foundation, Accountability Initiative (Centre for policy research) and Vidhi Centre for legal Policy.

Based on DISE data the report shows that states amongst themselves have large variation in their seat fill rate, from zero percent in Andhra Pradesh to 44.61 percent in Delhi.

It shows the number of schools participating – schools admitting at least one student under the mandate – has increased from 44,158 in 2013-14 to 44,996 in 2014-15.

While the union minister of human resource development in Lok Sabha said that “27 states and union territories have issued notification in their state rules regarding admission of children belonging to weaker section. States have reported a total of 17.35 lakh children admitted in private schools in the academic year 2014-15.”

An RTI reply highlights the ground reality. Out of 34 states and union territories, 18 shows zero schools implementing the provision. These include – Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Kerala, West Bengal and Punjab.

Just over 30 percent private schools across the country are opening doors for children from weaker section. While Delhi and Chandigarh reported 100 percent school participation. Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh fared poorly with six percent and 0.02 percent schools participating.

In 2014-15, little over 3.4 lakh seats were filled out of approximately 22.9 lakh seats available under the provision. The seat fill rate stand at 15.12 percent. This is slightly better than the previous year’s 3.2 lakh seats filled. States which have a better seat fill rate includes Delhi (44.61 percent), Rajasthan (39.26 percent), Chhattisgarh (32.94 percent) and Uttarakhand (31.96 percent).

The worst-performing states which have filled less than one percent are Andhra Pradesh (0 percent), Telangana (0.01 percent), Mizoram (0.21 percent), Uttar Pradesh (0.79 percent) and Odisha (0.97 percent).

Arghya Sengupta, research director at Vidhi Centre for legal policy, says quality education is hared obligation between private and government schools. He says the courts have been progressive in the judicial enforcement of this right. “Over 100 cases have been filed on different matters related to the RTE. These have been filed by public interest groups across different high courts. We have to see whether we can come up with a coordinated legal strategy to ensure quality education.”

Source : Governance now

Schools close admissions, RTE process yet to begin

In While the education department has not even initiated the process, parents of RTE aspirants fear that their kids may lose one whole year owing to this delay.

In March, when schools are in the process of finishing their admission process, the state education department has not even begin with theirs for Right to Education (RTE) aspirants. Parents seeking admission under RTE for their children fear that this delay will cause their kids to lose an entire year.

Under the RTE Act, 25% of total seats in private schools are reserved for students coming from socio-economically backward classes and the state education department conducts one exam to fill these seats.

Parents say
Varsha Walimbe, a Dahisar resident, who is hoping to get her daughter admitted to a private school under the RTE quota, is already looking for affordable private schools to have options. “We will be happiest if my child gets admission under RTE as she will be able to study in a good school, which otherwise we would not be able to afford. But we also can’t miss an entire academic year if the government process does not pan out properly. That’s why we are already looking at other schools that we can afford and we will have to go for them now because the remaining 75% seats will not be available later,” said Walimbe.

Parents also say that government officials are asking them to take admission in civic schools if the process is delayed. Pushpa Ambhire, another parent who works as cook at people’s places, said, “I want to take a chance under RTE admission so I want to wait. Whenever we go to ask about it we are told that if we do not get admission under RTE we can anyway go to a civic school. If not RTE, I would like to send my son to an affordable good private school instead of a civic school. But with this delay, we will miss the admission season completely.”

Activists say
Also, activists who are helping people get admission under the quota, say last year’s chaos is continuing till now. Sudhir Paranjape, an activist, told mid-day, “This admission process has been a complete mess since last year, especially after the education minister kept changing the parameters. It was so bad that last year’s process is still going on as seats are being allotted to last year’s applicants for admission in the next academic year. So this year’s admission continues to remain a mystery.”

Authorities say
Dinkar Temkar, deputy director at the Directorate of Primary Education who looks after the RTE admission across the state, said, “The process will soon begin. Online admission is conducted only in big cities, where the process is not completely ready. At other places the admissions have already begun at their levels.”

Source : Mid – day

RTE mandate fails to achieve even half-mark

Hemali Chhapia & Vinamrata Borwankar

Mumbai: They were supposed to go to school with everyone else. But the move towards equal education has been marred by contorted reasons and handicaps like slow admission process and lack of awareness among families. Schools too have often been unwelcoming in accepting students from all pin codes into one class. At the close of the 2015 admission season, of the 22.9 lakh seats available under the 25% quota for socially and economically disadvantaged children, only 3.46 lakh (15%) were filled.

The mandate though beautiful, said experts, failed to achieve even the half-mark. Delhi did best and filled 44.61% spots with deserving students who could attend a private unaided non-minority school. Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Chhattisgarh and Uttarakhand followed. Of the 1.56 lakh seats under this quota in Maharashtra, 28,028 (17.9%) were filled.

 A report by the Indian Institute of Management-Ahmedabad and other agencies found that states had unclear rules and guidelines to implement Section 12(1)(c) of the Right to Education (RTE) Act, which mandates 25% reservation for children from economically and socially disadvantaged sections in private unaided non-minority schools.
Ashish Dhawan, founder and chairman, Central Square Foundation, a philanthropy, said, “Awareness is still patchy, especially in rural areas. Once children enter the school system, the provision of supporting and child-tracking is almost non-existent.”
Ambrish Dongre of the Accountability Initiative, Centre for Policy Research, said, “Out of Rs 1,466 crore that states requested for implementation, only Rs 250 crore was approved by the Centre. Only Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajasthan and Uttarakhand got assistance from the Centre, indicating that states need to do a lot more.”

 

RTE Act faces significant implementation challenges: Report

New Delhi, Mar 11 (ENA)  Despite being enacted in 2009, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education faces significant implementation challenges. Overcoming these implementation challenges is essential for the program to be effective. Understanding and devising solutions to address these challenges deserve attention from practitioners and researchers alike, said a survey report.

The report titled, State of the Nation: RTE Section 12(1)(c) is a collaborative effort of the RTE Resource Centre at IIM Ahmedabad, Central Square Foundation, Accountability Initiative (Centre for Policy Research) and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy.

“The RTE Act mandates that private unaided schools keep aside 25 per cent of their entry level seats for children belonging to economically weaker sections and disadvantaged categories. The clause represents an instrument to increase equity in educational opportunities and create a more integrated and inclusive schooling system,” the Executive Summary of the report which was released recently stated.

The mandate currently has the potential to impact 1.6 crore children from EWS and DG categories in the next eight years.

However, in the six years since its introduction, the mandate’s implementation has experienced several roadblocks.   According to the report private schools across the country fill only 15 per cent of the nearly 2.29 million seats available for students from economically weaker sections.

Further, in 2014-15, out of the total seats available, just 346,000 seats were filled, a slight improvement from the 320,000 seats of the available 2.18 million in the previous year.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), makes education a fundamental right and stipulates free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution.

The idea behind this act is to have an inclusive education system and bring up a more egalitarian society. This Act allows children from diverse socio-economic segments to look beyond their doors and be a part of good quality education.

The main provisions of RTE are: free elementary education in neighborhood government schools; free elementary education for 25 per cent of entering students in private schools and specified category schools; provisions for enabling admission to schools – no capitation fees or interviews; provisions for enabling admission for older children and transfers; provisions for recognized, full-time schools; provisions for norms and standards for a school; provisions for school facilities and full-time school; provisions for teacher-pupil ratios and special teachers; provisions for process and content of education; provisions for role of schools and management committees. (ENA Bureau)

Source : Education News Agency ( INDIA)

Only 15% seats under RTE filled, says report

Only one out of five schools eligible to admit students from economically disadvantaged families under the RTE Act are taking in such students, and admission was given to only about 3 lakh students out of approximately 22 lakh seats available under the criterion in 2014-15, says a report on the implementation of Right to Education Act.

According to the report, in 2014-15, roughly 3.46 lakh seats were filled out of approximately 22.9 lakh seats available under RTE (or 15.12 per cent). This is a slight improvement from 3.2 lakh seats filled out of 21.8 lakh (14.66 per cent) in 2013-14.

 The second ‘State of the Nation: RTE Section 12(1)(c)’ report has been prepared by the RTE Resource Centre at IIM-Ahmedabad, Central Square Foundation, Accountability Initiative, and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy. The Section concerned mandates 25 per cent reservation for students from economically weaker sections (EWS) in non-minority, private and unaided schools.

Of 2.17 lakh schools across the country eligible to give admission under RTE, only 45,996 schools had taken at least one student under this provision in 2014-15, the report says.

Nationally, Delhi continues to top the list, with 44.61 per cent seats filled under the provision. Delhi is followed by Rajasthan (39.26 per cent), Tamil Nadu (37.75), Chhattisgarh (32.94) and Uttarakhand (31.96). The worst-performing states are Andhra Pradesh (0 per cent), Telangana (0.01), Mizoram (0.21), Uttar Pradesh (0.79) and Odisha (0.97).

Significantly, the report has called for an “urgent reexamination of exemptions provided to minority schools” under the Act. The report says that the exemption accorded to minority schools “allows for creation of a certain loophole which, if left unplugged, could unravel all efforts…”

About hurdles in the way of a smoother implementation of the Act, Ashish Dhawan, founder-chairman, Central Square Foundation, said, “Most states have either unclear rules or guidelines or are not implementing this provision. Awareness is still patchy, especially in rural areas. Once children enter the school system, provision of supporting and child-tracking is almost non-existent.”

Dr Ambrish Dongre, Senior Research Fellow at Accountability Initiative, Centre for Policy Research, and Fellow at Centre for Policy Research, said absence of adequate funds from the Centre could also be a likely cause for this patchy implementation. “Of Rs 1,466.5 crore the states requested for implementation of Section 12(1)(c), only Rs 250 crore was approved,” he said. “Only six states — Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Odisha, Rajasthan and Uttarakhand got Central assistance… (Besides,) ensuring smooth flow of money from the state to the schools is crucial.”

Talking about the role of civil society organisations, one of the lead authors of the report, Prof Ankur Sarin, a faculty member at Public Systems Group, IIM-Ahmedabad, said, “In states like Delhi, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Karnataka, civil society has played a critical role in improving the implementation.”

Source : The Indian Express

List of RTE quota students to be made available online

The names of students admitted to schools under the RTE quota, along with information on parents and their address, will go online in the coming academic year and made accessible to the public. This, the Department of Primary and Secondary Education says, will ensure transparency and streamline the admission process.

Ajay Seth, Principal Secretary of the department, said that information being in public domain will help people complain about any misuse of quota.

Only two IDs

In another major decision, the department has said that parents can apply using only Aadhaar or voter’s identity card. Mr. Seth said this would ensure that the address is authentic and duplicates are weeded out. Last year, over 1.31 lakh applications were found to be duplicate.

RTE Students’ and Parents’ Association general secretary B.N. Yogananda welcomed the move on putting out information on the net, as it would bring about transparency. “However, there is a need for the department to ensure that children do not get discriminated with their identity being revealed,” he warned.

This year, students are eligible to apply for seats for their children only if the school falls in their ward. Last year, the department during admissions had “tweaked” the process and allowed parents to file applications in neighbouring wards as well.

Nagasimha G. Rao, convenor of the RTE Task Force, urged the department to announce the calendar of events at the earliest as it had created anxiety among parents.

Goof-ups in online process last year

Of 3.89 lakh applications received, 1.31 lakh were rejected as parents had filed multiple applications

Some children were allotted seats twice

Dept. revised maximum age limit and increased it by three months after the allotment for first round was completed

Children were allotted seats in schools that were closed or already filled

Many schools claimed self-styled minority status after students were allotted seats. They refused to admit children

While the first three rounds were conducted online, fourth round was conducted offline at the block level

Source : The Hindu

Failure of Right to Education Act: Is it time to privatise education?

The Right to Education Act is based on an excellent and very politically marketable idea – that every child should have an equal right to a good education.

The fancily named ‘Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act (2009)’ is a classic case study in the shortsightedness of the previous UPA government and a sobering lesson in how long the repercussions of bad policy can last. It is also a reminder, in a time when the NDA government is under siege, as to why Prime Minister Modi’s pro-development platform is important and must be supported.

The RTE, as the law is popularly called, was a classic from the Congress playbook – find a popular problem (in this case, the failure of the government to run state schools properly), hatch a grandiose but poorly thought through scheme, and dump the burden onto the private sector.

 This was done repeatedly without a proper assessment of the scheme’s vulnerability to corruption and challenges to implementation. For all the grand pro-poor speak of the Congress leaders right from Indira to Rahul, it remains that decades of Indian socialism under the Congress has failed to provide a properly functioning public educational system.

If the goal of the RTE is to ensure that all children in India receive a proper education, then the current act will ensure the exact opposite. Let us understand the shortsightedness of the Act.

First, the act doesn’t address the root of the problem in India. By some estimates, private schools attendance accounts for only about 30 per cent. So, 70 per cent of the country’s school students still depend on inadequate government schools – where teacher quality is abysmal, attendance is poor, infrastructure non-existent, and corruption rampant. The RTE does nothing to address this gaping and urgent problem.

Second, the RTE punishes success. Instead of spending resources and efforts on improving the delivery of public services, the UPA Act once again punishes private enterprise and pushes the burden of execution onto non-government run schools. Consider that private schools (charity, convent, minority, and religious schools) have been delivering good quality education at reasonable prices for decades. Behind almost all Indian entrepreneurial success stories lies some form of private schooling.

Under the RTE Act, these institutions are being forced to replace 25 per cent of their fee paying students with (essentially) free students. To make up for the loss in revenue, the school must either collect the difference from the remaining 75 per cent of parents (who may not be able to afford it), or because fee hikes are restricted by law in many Indian states, cut down on their curriculum and/or their quality of teachers. A 25 per cent budget cut would devastate any school and over time, many of these schools are being forced to shut down or are seeing drastic reductions in the quality of their output.

The RTE is riddled with poorly conceived conditions. A requirement for a minimum plot size of 2000 square meters, means that it is impossible to build small, affordable schools in slums or villages. The act’s insistence that all schools be officially “recognised” means that lakhs of small schools doing good work in poor areas are now illegal. And of course, the new layer of bureaucracy created to “inspect” the schools has become another source of corruption and extortion.

Finally, like all ruinous populist entitlement programs, it is based on an excellent and very politically marketable idea – that every child should have an equal right to a good education. Nobody can (or should) argue against this truism and as a result though the program is a failure on the ground, it would be political suicide for anyone to reverse. So, what is the solution?

Thankfully, the current government does not share the previous regime’s reflexive distrust of private enterprise. In time, I hope that Modi’s government will recognise the failings of the RTE and work towards fixing the infrastructure through which education is delivered in India, rather than distracting us with a new tag line. Here are some suggestions on where to start.

Let us first accept that the underlying idea behind the RTE is a good one – the concept of underprivileged children attending private schools – but the execution is at fault. Common sense and strong economics should help us improve the Act’s intention.

Modi’s government must start by fixing its failing public school system, attended by around 70 per cent of Indian students. Without this, the government is simply abdicating its responsibilities. Even with limited resources, this can be done by first improving the monitoring of teachers and teaching standards and second, by regulating the financial management of the state school system. The current government has run on a proven platform of better governance, therefore, this should be within their ability.

Next, as a complement to the public system, education must be privatised. As we have seen in industries such as airlines, automobiles, and hotels, the private sector, if freed, will deliver products that work for all price ranges.

Currently, private schools face heavy and regressive regulation and are therefore concentrated in the high end of the market, where risk is lower. If these burdens are removed, and a simple set of quality standards implemented (like in automobiles), private players would create and offer products for an increasingly wider range of students, covering the entire range of the market that is financially viable.

Of course, for the poorest students, it would be impossible to provide a financially viable private education. Here, a government “voucher” system could be put in place that would work as follows: All ‘below-poverty-line’ students would receive a voucher to be used in lieu of fees at any designated government school or ‘low-cost’ private school of the parents’ choosing. The institution would receive a fixed payment per voucher from the government, which would be set at a level that makes the schools financially viable. Since the parents could move with ease from one school to another, competition would ensure that schools are forced to maintain quality and standards. It is highly probable that the cost per voucher would be less than what the government would spend to run its own schools.

The 25 per cent reservation in private schools should be retained, but the government must compensate the schools for the actual revenue lost, which can be easily done through a modification to the same voucher program mentioned above. This allows the best schools to maintain their standards while achieving the goal of social inclusion.

The education of India’s next generation is far too important a priority to leave to the mercy of a poorly thought out, and hastily drafted Act. Modi’s government needs to replace the RTE with a new Act, worthy of its’ practical and pro-free market reputation.

Source: Indian Express

Right To Education Act Section 12(1) (c): Reservation within reservation

The Indian Parliament in 2009 passed the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, as a landmark legislation. Section 12 (1) (c) of the ACT mandated reservation of a minimum of 25% of the seats at the entry level class for children belonging to economically weaker sections (EWS) and disadvantaged groups in all private unaided schools; excluding minority institutions. The cost of education of these children is to be reimbursed by the government to the extent of per child expenditure incurred by the state or the actual school fees, whichever is less. The provision was initially challenged in the Supreme Court and after April 2012, when the Supreme Court upheld the constitutional validity of the Act through its judgement, section 12 (1) (c) became applicable. Given the salience of such a provision and its potential to put millions of children in private schooling, deeper scrutiny is required on the nuances and the manner in which it is being implemented.

To begin with the provisions of the scheme, it is useful to know how the terms “disadvantaged groups” and “weaker section” have been defined. Owing to the ambiguous nature of the guidelines issued by the central government, each state has modified the model guidelines and framed its own set of implementation processes. Delhi defines EWS as the families from economically weaker section having household income less than 1 lakh per annum while the disadvantaged groups include SC, ST, and non-creamy layer of OBC, orphans and physically and mentally challenged children. On the other hand, Rajasthan has set this income limit to 2.5 lakhs per annum.

A lot of states including Haryana, Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu etc. have specifically included HIV affected children in this quota in addition to other categories.  Uttar Pradesh has further conditioned admission under this section. A government order issued in UP in 2012 stipulated that children from EWS sections could be admitted to private schools only after all seats in government or government-aided schools had been filled.

Moreover, the state government is responsible for deciding on the neighbourhood and age criteria to be followed under this section. There are again some inter-state variations. For instance, in Rajasthan, they follow a ward criteria while in Maharashtra, neighbourhood is defined in terms of aerial distance. In Himachal Pradesh and Haryana, the admission is further conditioned on the enrolment of a minimum number of children to be enrolled in the neighbourhood of 1 km. This measure was aimed at providing equal access to education for children from socio-econ­omically backward sections and was primarily formulated to foster inclusion of marginalised children.  While it has the potential to improve both equity and efficiency in school education in India, the implementation so far has been highly haphazard across states.

Four years down the line, the Right to free and Compulsory Education Act has made education neither free nor compulsory in most parts of the country. In the light of the RTE Act, the model rules framed by the Central Government state that children admitted under Section 12 (1) (c) shall not be segregated from the other children in the classroom, nor shall their classes be held at places and timings different from the classes held for other children. It further provides that these children shall not be discriminated from the rest of the children in any manner pertaining to entitlements and facilities such as textbooks, uniforms, library and ICT facilities, extracurricular activities and sports.

But the opaque and unclear process of implementation of this provision has received representations from various stakeholders as the private schools have brazenly violated the above mentioned principles in some of the states. Since there is unambiguity as to what amount has to be reimbursed to these schools, there are several heads other than “tuition fees” for which the parents are being charged. In case they deny to pay this fee, the school conveniently keeps such children admitted under this quota out of any activity that takes place outside the four walls of a classroom. There have been sporadic instances of blatant discrimination and denial of admission in some of the elite private schools.

The problem lies with the view several schools take towards EWS admissions. Since the 25% number amounts to a critical lot, what remains a thorn in the flesh, is the lack of clarity in the reimbursement to be made to private schools, which has further hampered the compliance in many states.  In response to RTIs filed regarding the reimbursement procedure, some states like Rajasthan, Uttarakhand, Maharashtra, and Karnataka seem to have extensively detailed the process of reimbursement while several others like Goa, Himachal Pradesh, and Punjab have no clarity on the per-child reimbursement amounts even after 3 years of implementation. Moreover, this provision has opened the private schools for greater governmental interference and owing to inertia among these schools in declaring their fees publically has also led to delays in the entire process. Such unformulated provisions further tend to obstruct the effective implementation on the ground.

Further, building monitoring structures for this Act and putting in place grievance redressal mechanisms is needed to bridge some of the above mentioned implementation gaps. Given that there is a growing trend of privatization in majority of states and the lack of quality confronting the education in government schools, it requires concerted efforts from government, schools and civil society organizations to actually translate the intent of this practice.

Source: Accountability Initiative Blog